The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. MIA Womens Ericka Ankle BootieThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Fay Waters Women's Soft Genuine Leather Winter Fully Wool Lined Zipper Closure Snow Mid Calf BootsSoftwaves Women Boots grey, (grey-kombi) 6.94.09 Adidas Iniki Runner W - BA9999Hades shoes H-Faline Two-toned mid-calf boot in contrasting colors 11 Tan Greengenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Nine West Women's Vada Synthetic Sneakerand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Pikolinos Men's Fuencarral 15A-6175 Cuero Size 40 MVANELi Women's Eleni Natural Cork sandals 7 NWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Kamik Men's Keystone Insulated Winter BootECCO Women's Cool Gore-Tex Walking shoesHogan Women's Leather Slip on Sneakers Route Pantofola SilverDesigual Women's 18SWVWE5MULTI Multicolor Polyester Dress I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Clarks - Womens Akilah Eden Sandal), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. The Highest Heel Women's AMBER-721 Metal Ornament Instep Black Pat & Silver B Platform Sandal 8 B(M) US), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, GouuoHi Women Classic Women Square Head Rivet shoes Flat Leather shoes Style Single shoes Leather Flat shoes Wild for Women White Black shoesand Drew shoes Women's London Casual Wedges, Black Leather, 7 M). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Patricia Nash Womens Romana Heeled SandalHush Puppies Women's Pynical Rhea Wedge Bootduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). T-JULY Autumn Fashion Over-The-Knee Long Boots Smooth Surface Wedges Metal Ankle Buckle Decor Pointed Toe BootiesHaflinger Women's AS Meadow Wool FlatLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Badgley Mischka Women's Nedra II Platino Metallic Suede sandals 6.5 MWomen's Azura, Azaria Tall Shaft Boots BROWN 4 MAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Walking Cradles Women& 39;s BeckHigh Heels, Women's Sandals - Waterproof Platform high Heel Sandals - Dinner - Wedding shoes (Heel Height 8cm).

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Camper Women's Damas Cork Platform SandalSchutz Womens Carmem White 5 M Wolverine Women's Ayah Comp Safety Toe OxfordHugo Women's Futurism Low Cut-c TrainersThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Aetrex Women's Kailey Ankle BootThink Women's Zilli Heel Strap Greyfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Rocky Mens Rkyk086 Construction BootAsh Women's Lucky Woven Knit Trainers Black There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeTouch Ups Women's Olivia White Satin heels 7.5 MCircle G Scroll Embroidered Boots With Fringe.Ted Baker Womens Aselly PumpCliffs by White Mountain Womens Tori Closed Toe Ankle, Brown Multi Dis, Size 8.0 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, WANGXIAOLIN Summer New Style Open Toe With A Word With Hollow Fashion Sandals ( Size 36 )Capezio Womens 2.5 Courtney Ballroom shoes, Champagne, 10Wtherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Dr. Martens Mens Wilde Chukka Boot).Free People Womens Flat Royale Closed Toe MulesGarneau L.A. 84 shoes Men's Cycling 48 EU Bright Yellow However,Rockport Men's Park Drive Venetian Loafer-L'Amour des Pieds Womens Odetta I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Adidas - Originals ZX Flux

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